With strong and efficient research and development (R&D), a focus on growth areas and the Emerging Markets, and a national and international network of outstanding partners, we are creating the foundation for innovation and thus the company’s future success. In 2013 a total of €3,190 million (2012: €3,013 million) was spent on research and development. This was equivalent to 7.9% (2012: 7.6%) of sales. The number of employees working in research and development worldwide was 13,700.
Research collaborations with external partners from academia and industry form an integral part of our innovation strategy. These collaborations and alliances with leading universities, public research institutes and partner companies are supplemented by incubators, crowdsourcing and science hubs in Asia and the United States to tap into external innovative potential using the open innovation approach. Some of our collaborations are supported by public funding.
Reliable, global protection of intellectual property rights is essential for an innovation company like Bayer. At the end of 2013, we owned approximately 67,400 valid patent applications and patents worldwide relating to some 8,700 protected inventions.