Cardiovascular & Kidney Diseases

Chronic Kidney Disease

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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the most frequent complications arising from diabetes and is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease. CKD in Type 2 Diabetes is the most common cause of kidney failure worldwide.

CKD is characterized by a gradual loss of kidney function over a period of months to years. The kidneys filter waste products and excess fluid from the blood. When chronic kidney disease reaches an advanced stage, harmful levels of fluid and wastes can build up in the body.


Chronic kidney disease progresses slowly and silently. Most symptoms do not appear until the disease is well advanced. Clinical signs are unspecific. Tiredness, nausea, insomnia, albumin (a protein) in urine, hypertension, swollen ankles, feet or hands, and itchy skin may be among the symptoms of chronic kidney disease.